Gaze stability for liveness detectionDate:2021-09-10
Security Enhanced Anonymous Multiserver Authenticated Key Agreement Scheme Using Smart Cards and Biometrics
Previous research has identified user concerns about biometric authentication technology, but most of this research has been conducted in European contexts. There is a lack of research that has investigated attitudes towards biometric technology in other cultures. To address this issue, data from India, South Africa and the United Kingdom were collected and compared. Cross-cultural attitudinal differences were seen, with Indian respondents viewing biometrics most positively while respondents from the United Kingdom were the least likely to have a positive opinion about biometrics. Multiple barriers to the acceptance of biometric technology were identified with data security and health and safety fears having the greatest overall impact on respondents' attitudes towards biometrics. The results of this investigation are discussed with reference to Hofstede 's cultural dimensions and theories of technology acceptance. It is argued that contextual issues specific to each country provide a better explanation of the results than existing theories based on Hofstede 's model. We conclude that cultural differences have an impact on the way biometric systems will be used and argue that these factors should be taken into account during the design and implementation of biometric systems.
A payment system for facilitating a payment transaction between a payer and a payee is disclosed. The payment system includes a payer access device, a payee access device, and a services hub. The services hub is configured to communicate with the payer device and the payee device; maintain information relating to a payer account and access device information associated with the payer account, the payer account being linked to the access device; generate a tracer ticket in response to a request issued by the payer using either the payer device or the payee device, the tracer ticket containing information relating to the payment transaction; validate the access devices; and authorize the payment transaction against the payer account through conventional payment processing systems. Upon receiving the request from the payee device for the tracer ticket, the services hub generates the tracer ticket and forwards a copy thereof to the payer via the payee device. Upon receiving the copy of the tracer ticket, the payer uses the payer device to communicate with the services hub and forward the received copy of the tracer ticket to the services hub. The services hub then validates the payer device based on the access device information. Upon validation of the payer device, the services hub checks the copy of the tracer ticket forwarded by the access device against the previously generated tracer ticket. If the copy of the tracer ticket forwarded by the access device corresponds to the previously generated tracer ticket, the services hub authorizes the payment transaction against the payer account.
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